Plural Nouns: Rules and Examples
Most singular nouns are made plural by simply putting an -s at the end. There are many different rules regarding pluralization depending on what letter a noun ends in. Irregular nouns do not follow plural noun rules, so they must be memorized or looked up in the dictionary.
Plural Noun Rules
There are many plural noun rules, and because we use nouns so frequently when writing, it’s important to know all of them! The correct spelling of plurals usually depends on what letter the singular noun ends in.
2If the singular noun ends in ‑s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, or -z, add ‑es to the end to make it plural.
3In some cases, singular nouns ending in -s or -z, require that you double the -s or -z prior to adding the -es for pluralization.
4If the noun ends with ‑f or ‑fe, the f is often changed to ‑ve before adding the -s to form the plural version.
5If a singular noun ends in ‑y and the letter before the -y is a consonant, change the ending to ‑ies to make the noun plural.
6If the singular noun ends in -y and the letter before the -y is a vowel, simply add an -s to make it plural.
7If the singular noun ends in ‑o, add ‑es to make it plural.
With the unique word volcano, you can apply the standard pluralization for words that end in -o or not. It’s your choice! Both of the following are correct:
8If the singular noun ends in ‑us, the plural ending is frequently ‑i.
9If the singular noun ends in ‑is, the plural ending is ‑es.
10If the singular noun ends in ‑on, the plural ending is ‑a.
11Some nouns don’t change at all when they’re pluralized.
You need to see these nouns in context to identify them as singular or plural. Consider the following sentence:
Plural Noun Rules for Irregular Nouns
Irregular nouns follow no specific rules, so it’s best to memorize these or look up the proper pluralization in the dictionary.
person – people
noun, plural or·ange·ries.
TAKE THIS QUIZ TO SEE WHAT YOU KNOW ABOUT HIGH SCHOOL PUNCTUATION!
Origin of orangery
Words nearby orangery
Words related to orangery
Example sentences from the Web for orangery
The orangery is a beautiful specimen of tuscan architecture, designed by le Maitre, and finished by Mansart.
Adelle woke to consciousness in the orangery , where they had laid mattresses for her and the dead child.
Farrell, who was under him, is now in charge of the Orangery .
She sends her kindest regards, and has sent you some preserves, also some peaches out of the orangery , and mushrooms.
He has built the orangery and the theater, and created a mass of cascades, basins and fountains which rival Versailles.
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15 Best Memory Foam Mattress 2020
Choosing the right memory foam mattress will help you achieve restful sleep and assist in maintaining the natural shape of your spine. Memory foam is considered the best type of mattress due to its ability to contour to the body. It molds to the body and reverts back to its neutral form as soon as the exerted pressure is removed.
This flexibility makes it an excellent choice for everyone. It also has many additional features that should be noted. To find the best memory foam mattress, you should review several of their key features.
To help customers in this quest, we briefly discuss the significant factors to consider when buying. You will have more transparency in your purchase by considering different product reviews.
15 Best Memory Foam Mattress 2020
1. Nectar (BestOverall Memory Foam Mattress/Editor Choice)
If you’re talking performance, customization, variety, and professionalism, you basically mean the Nectar Mattress. The Nectar Mattress is just what it sounds like: sweet and a whole lot of bud-tingling sensations.
Nectar has 5 distinct and very important layers that shape up the capacity of the product and features three layers of high-quality Memory Foam that will ensure a secure and extremely comfortable sleep experience.
The Nectar has tons of unique characteristics that will surely make you fall in love with it. Let’s look into the features:
- Five Extraordinary Layers
The Nectar features 5 layers of foam and a cover that have been mechanically reinforced to provide the best sleep experience.
- The top cover is made of a Tencel Cooling fabric that not only keeps you cool and regulated during sleep and doubles as a bedbug repellant. If you travel much, there is a risk of a sneaky bedbug stowing away in your luggage. you’ll appreciate the bedbug resistant quality of the Tencel Cooling Cover.
- The second layer is of pure Quilted Gel Memory Foam which facilitates air circulation and helps the memory foam mattress contour to your body.
- The third layer is made of Gel Memory Foam that relieves stress and spinal pain.
- Extra cushioning and bounce are encapsulated in the fourth layer, which has been engineered from Adaptive Hi-Core Memory Foam.
- The lowermost layer is a base layer to provide support and ventilation.
- Fits All Types of Bed Frames
The Nectar Mattress is versatile enough to fit into almost all types of bed frames. Think you can’t find a mattress that perfectly fits your Divan bed frame? Think again. The Nectar Mattress can contort and conform, and suitably fit in Divans, Box Springs, Platforms, Traditional Frames, Adjustable Bases, or on the floor.
- Optimum Firmness
The firmness quotient of the Nectar memory foam mattresses is why we fell in love with them in the first place. The firmness remains between 6 and 7, which is neither too soft nor too tough. However, it may not work for users who want to use it for therapeutic reasons and wish to adjust the firmness.
- Tencel Cooling Cover provides heat regulation and cooling. Three layers of memory foam that promote body contouring and stress relief. A supportive base layer adds to the cushioning and comfort. It can be used with a variety of beds such as Divans, Box Springs, Platforms, Floors, Traditional Frames, and Adjustable Bases. Firmness is just right, between 6 and 7 which is suitable for most people.You can’t find a better memory foam mattress at this price levelAwesome trial and warranty
- Only one firmness level. Sometimes Nectar takes longer to ship due to high demand.
2. The 10″ Nolah Original –Best Memory Foam Mattress for Pressure and Pain Relief
Have you ever wake up in the middle of nights finding out that it’s your hip pain again? Whether it’s because of memory foam that’s too soft, or springs that give you excessive support, you just know the mattress is not the right one for you? If you answer “yes” and ”yes”, then Nolah Air foam mattress is the one you definitely want to try.
Note:Nolah is not a REAL memory foam mattress, but they work very similar to easy other.
As you may have noticed, Nolah mattresses feature this Air foam® technology, which sets it apart from other conventional memory foam counterparts. Cutting open Nolah Original’s foam wrapping, you can see three layers of foams that work together to ensure its performance.
On top is the 2-inch air foam, the very cooling layer that takes away the heat and leaves you the dry and cool feel you want for a good sleep. This layer also works to relieve most of the pressure on your shoulders and hip.
While it looks no different from common memory foam that you may be familiar with, except its greyish blue color, it does feel a bit different and more responsive in particular.
Unlike “real” memory foam, Nolah’s Air foam shows stronger restoring force and retake its original shape much faster. We have no idea what ingredients Nolah has blended into its air foam, but it’s safe to say this layer plays an irreplaceable part in mitigating stress on your shoulders and hip.
There’s nothing to brag about as to the 7-inch poly foam support base at the bottom, which feels denser and firmer. This layer helps to maintain the mattress in shape, and enhance the support to the layers on top, allowing for better contouring.
And then you’ll find this 1-inch transitional layer in the middle. It feels bouncier, and a little bit softer than the air foam layer. We believe it works like a buffer, so you don’t feel the high-density base.
- The moderate firmness that is soft enough to relieve shoulder and hip stress, and supportive to keep you “on” the mattress; Air foam layer that really feels a bit cooler than ordinary memory foam mattresses; The super-soft viscose cover and excellent motion isolation performance; Nolah Original is absolutely an affordable and cost-effective option for what it offers. I mean there’s a reason that it’s the best market-selected go-to mattress for side sleepers. If Nolah’s reasonable price still stands out of your budget, guess what, you can pay by the month at less than $80 for 12 months, in case you want to get a queen size. Free delivery and return if you don’t like it after the 120-night trial. Nolah’s humanitarian wildlife rescue program really strikes up our vibes as environmental protection advocates.
- Not a perfect choice for heavier people, but Nolah’s flippable 12-inch Signature is good news for them The slight odor, although not offensive, would last for a few days
3. Plushbeds Memory Foam – Best Alternative for Sleep Number and Tempur-Pedic Cloud
Plushbeds offers four Memory Foam mattresses that combine Memory Foam with latex to provide support without as much sinking in as regular Memory Foam mattresses.
Plushbed Memory Foam mattresses made our Best Memory Foam Mattress list because every mattress combines latex and durable core support to provide the softness of Memory Foam with superior support and reliable durability. Choose one from these styles to match your sleep preferences and budget:
- Cool Bliss 12” Gel Memory Foam Pacific Breeze 10” Gel Memory Foam Ocean Mist 9” Gel Memory Foam Posture Plus 12” Gel Memory Foam
If you need help deciding, call their customer service staff. Customers rave about their ability to help them choose the right mattress.
Plushbed uses a unique premium memory foam with a cooling gel that is 30% cooler than regular Memory Foam, so you won’t sleep hot. Layering Memory Foam and latex provides support for your spine and pressure point relief for your shoulders and hips. You’ll feel like you’re sleeping on a cloud. UL’s Green Guard Gold standard means you can rest assured that the mattress is safe for you and your children.
Unlike many Memory Foam mattresses that recommend not using an electric blanket, you can safely use an electric blanket with Plushbed Memory Foam mattresses. The temperature in the room won’t affect performance as much as it does with other Memory Foam mattresses.
One customer bought it for her guest bedroom and ended up moving it to her room and buying another one for the guest room.
- Less tossing and turning Sleep better because you’re cool and dry More responsive because staying cooler stops it from sinking in too much Will support individuals up to 400 pounds All the memory foam mattresses are hypoallergenic They are durable and protected by a long warranty
Satisfied customers compare Plushbeds favorably to Sleep Number and Tempur-Pedic Cloud.
Depending on the style, the cover may include antimicrobial and cooling effects. The Posture Plush
Luxurious relief and support allow you to sleep through the night.
- The memory foam mattresses are made with the environment in mind They provide great pressure and pain relief Individuals with higher weights can get the support their body needs Some styles have zero motion transfer No Off-gassing 100-night sleep trial 25-year warranty Free returns
- They don’t provide instant gratification; they make every mattress after you order it. Expect it to take about three weeks to receive your mattress.
4. Layla – Best Flippable Memory Foam Mattress (also great for side sleepers)
If you’re a side sleeper or a combination sleeper who enjoys spending time on your side, Layla is a great choice. It is our 2019 and 2020best choice for a side sleeper.
Layla helps avoid the pressure points that can cause aches and pains in the shoulder and hips. Its revolutionary copper infused cooling system helps you sleep cool, too.
Layla comes up with great ideas. The memory foam mattress is flippable. One side is softer than the other so one mattress provides you with two firmness options without the hassle of exchanging it. This is a great idea for guest bedrooms, too, because you can provide guests a comfortable bed regardless of their preference for firm or medium-soft.
Layla helps people who’ve had pain from sleeping on other mattresses eliminate the pain, including people who have had hip replacement surgery. It’s very comfortable for side sleepers.
Layla is a socially conscious company that donates a night in a homeless shelter to someone in need for every bed they sell.
With Layla, you’ll be comfortable because you won’t be uncomfortable from pressure points and its motion isolation ensures your sleeping partner won’t wake you up. The copper serves a second important purpose with its antimicrobial properties that can prevent microbes from setting up their home in your bed.
Layla’s sleep experts know the point of a good night’s sleep is to allow you to live your best possible life and they do everything they can to support you with a memory foam mattress that helps you feel ready for anything when you wake up in the morning.
- Layla stands behind their product with a lifetime warranty and a 120-night sleep trial. Layla is made in the USA The unique copper-infused cooling system combines with a layer of foam designed to increase airflow and the THERMOgel cover to effectively draws heat away from your body. This memory foam mattress is very durable.
- Layla’s edge support isn’t great for sitting on the side of the bed but it’s fine when you’re laying down If you decide not to keep the mattress, you have to donate it to charity and provide Layla with a receipt for your donation if you’re in the USA. In other countries, the shipping fee is deducted from the refund.
5.Nectar Lush (Memory Foam Mattress for Side Sleepers)
If you want to stick with a company with a great reputation for standing behind their mattress, Nectar Lush is a choice that will deliver.
Nectar Lush’s 3-layers add up to a 12-inch mattress that delivers comfort and support every night. The memory foam is responsive and durable. With a Forever Warranty™ you can trust the durability of Nectar Lush.
The Nectar Lush is scientifically designed to provide you with a great place to sleep.
- Three Layers of Comfort and Support
The Nectar Lush is constructed from 3 layers of foam, a 3-inch comfort layer, a 2-inch transition level, and a 7-inch support layer. All the layers are encased in a cover that has cooling technology woven into it, ensuring you will sleep cool.
- The cover is a soft and strong circular knit fabric with polyethylene that draws heat away from the sleeper’s body.
- The first foam layer is 3-inches of pressure relieving contouring memory foam infused with cooling gel, so you won’t get too hot. This layer reduces tossing and turning by keeping you cool and avoiding pressure points.
- The second layer of foam is a 2-inch transition layer that keeps your body on the mattress, rather than in the mattress.
- The bottom layer is 7-inches of PU conventional foam that supports the upper layers and stabilizes the mattress.
- Fits All Types of Bed Frames
The Nectar Lush Mattress is made to work on any type of bed frame. You can use it on your existing box springs, without box springs, with a Bunkie board, adjustable beds, platform beds, traditional frames, and even on the floor.
- Comfortable Firmness
Although there is only one firmness level, rated between 5.5 and 7.5, they chose the perfect level to maximize comfort, especially for side and combination sleepers.
- 12-inches of comfort and support Amazingly long sleep trial Nectar Lush Forever Warranty™ — yes, forever Motion transfer control is near perfect Free shipping and returns in the continental US CertiPUR-US certification Pressure point ease for side sleepers
- Only one firmness level. If you use the white glove service, the fee isn’t refundable if you return the mattress
6. Tempur-Pedic – Best Luxury Memory Foam Mattress
Tempur-Pedic recently introduced a new TEMPUR series of memory foam mattresses that give you a choice of firmness and support.
The TEMPUR LuxeAdapt and TEMPUR ProAdapt Series include the unique ability to remove the cover and wash it in a washing machine so you can keep your mattress fresh and clean. Backed by the trusted TEMPUR-PEDIC brand, you can choose from these styles:
- TEMPUR-LuxeAdapt Series 13” in soft or firm TEMPUR-ProAdapt Series 12” in Soft, Medium, Medium Hybrid or Firm TEMPUR-Adapt Series 11” in Medium or Medium Hybrid
You’re sure to find a style that allows you to sleep wonderfully all night long.
- Word famous luxury memory foam brand 90-night sleep trial 10-year warranty Many customers swear by Tempurpedic. They come back 10 – 20 years later to replace their old mattress and some people buy a second mattress for their vacation homes because they sleep so well. Tempurpedic can provide wonderful relief from pressure. The only memory foam mattress we’ve seen that offers a Split California King size. Sleep cool cover on the TEMPUR LuxeAdapt and TEMPUR ProAdapt Series. Good motion transfer so a restless partner won’t keep you awake. Cool to the touch cover. White-Glove service is included with every purchase. Off gassing dissipates quickly.
- The sleep trial isn’t an immediate money back guarantee. They’ll ask you to exchange the mattress for a different one that will suit your needs better if your first choice isn’t right for you. If there are no solutions they’ll refund your money less shipping charges ($175). Higher cost than many other memory foam choices.
7. Loom & Leaf – Best Affordable Luxury Memory Foam Mattress
Loom & Leaf is an excellent choice if you want a quality mattress made using sustainable, organic eco-friendly materials without the higher price of natural latex. They earn a spot on our Best Memory Foam Mattress List for providing high-quality eco-friendly mattresses at a more affordable price.
Loom & Leaf memory foam mattresses offer two firmness levels to provide comfort and pressure relief to back, stomach and side sleepers. While the bed is not 100% organic, Loom and Leaf provide an affordable memory foam mattress from a company that strives to be as green as possible without making their mattresses too expensive for their customers. If you want a completely organic mattress checkout Botanical Bliss for about double the price.
Many of Loom & Leaf’s satisfied customers were early TEMUR-PEDIC customers whose mattresses need to be replaced after a decade or more who are delighted to find an equivalent quality for a much lower price.
- The Firm level has 8.75 inches of firm support in a 12” deep mattress The Relaxed Firm has a 4.75” foundation in a 12” deep mattress
Each layer is designed to provide pressure relief, cooling sleep, and supportive contouring Memory Foam so you rest deeply and wake up pain-free.
- Their eco-friendly foams use at least 30% soy or corn oil in the production process. Thistle fibers bonded with a small amount of polyester provide a natural, chemical-free flame retardant barrier. The luxurious cover is 100% cotton.
- Compares favorably to brands priced considerably higher. Medium-firm provides great pressure relief for side sleepers and enough support for back sleepers. Firm provides good support for back and stomach sleepers. The edge support is better than you’ll find in most Memory Foam mattresses. Eco-friendly green company and product without the high price of a fully organic mattress. 120-night sleep trial 15-year warranty Their white glove delivery service is free. They will take your old mattress away without charging you for the service. Made to order in the USA.
- There are less expensive Memory Foam Brands but Loom & Leaf compares favorably with higher priced mattresses You have to be home when the mattress is delivered.
8. Puffy – Best Memory Foam Bed for Spine Aligned and Snoring
The Puffy makes our Best Memory Foam mattress list because it has so many satisfied customers who report that they sleep cool and wake up without aches and pains.
Under the stain resistant mattress cover, Puffy provides support that keeps your spine aligned and ensures you don’t wake up sore from pressure points. The memory foam mattress adapts and contours so well to your body that you will feel like you’re sleeping in a cool cloud. Well, you would if you were awake but if you’re laying on a Puffy mattress, you’ll probably be asleep.
Puffy offers two Memory Foam Mattresses. Whether you sleep on your side, back, stomach or sprawl all over, Puffy has a mattress that will allow you to sleep like a dream.
- The 10” Puffy Mattress
- The 12” Puffy Lux Mattress
Puffy’s Cooling Cloud™ Foam provides 4” of Memory Foam that pulls the heat away from your body and provides air flow so you can sleep cool. The core support foam is 6” of durable and responsive foam. The cover is stain resistant and it also zips off for cleaning.
- Pain and pressure relief from the way Puffy contours to your body and the durable core support layer. Cooling Cloud Temperature Regulation so you can sleep cool 101-night sleep trial Lifetime warranty Free delivery and returns Made in USA The zip-off washable cover that is also stain resistant Low to no off-gassing Two firmness options instead of a one-size fits all approach
- Customers who returned the memory foam mattress primarily returned it because the firmness wasn’t right for their sleep preferences. While positive reviews overwhelming outnumber the returns and there’s no risk because you have a money back guarantee, we’d like to see more people matched with the right version the first time.
9. eLuxury Supply – Best memory foam mattress for back pain
eLuxury supply offers a variety of mattresses produced in Indiana by a fast-growing veteran-owned company. This review is for the 10″ Gel Memory Foam Mattress.
The eLuxury supply includes the uniqueness of gel in its technology, amongst other features that make it one of the best choices if you want to sleep cool. With a trial period of over 120 nights, the company is sure to earn the customer’s satisfaction. Along with providing a high-quality bed, eLuxury gives one out of every 45 sales to charity.
eLuxury Supply is a step ahead of the regular memory foam mattresses when it comes to sleeping cool. The gel-infused option helps keep you cooler, comfortable, and more relaxed than many memory foam mattresses. It sleeps cool even in the summertime; some customers report it sleeps cooler than their old innerspring mattress.
The gel foam is in the topmost layers of about 3 inches and weighs about 3 pounds. The rest of the mattress is a seven-inch high-density base foam, which helps relax your pressure points and ease discomfort. The cover is a poly-blend that has a zipper for easy removal and washing.
This product is made in the USA and certified by CertiPUR-US. To ensure customer satisfaction, the company offers a 120-night trial for their product along with a 10-year warranty.
- They did a great job with thegel memory foamtechnology,which eliminates the problem of sleeping hot on memory foam. The cover is poly-blend and can be quickly taken off and put back on for machine washing Certified by CertiPUR-US. The company offers up to a 120-night trial period which is plenty of time to figure out if the bed suits you or if you need to use the no-hassle return policy. Best choice for sleepers who want to sleep cool on a memory foam mattress.
- The memory foam mattress is firmer than many people prefer Price is higher compared with other cheap choices or Nectar Only 10 inches high
10. Signature Sleep
Signature sleepis a well-known brand that provides quality products to its customers. This is why it has been ranked as one of the best available choices. Signature sleep has two layers of foam, including a memory foam layer, which makes it comfortable andhealthy to sleep on. It comes in most sizes but does not include a California King option. Various depths are available.
Signature Sleep offers surprisingly affordable memory foam mattress options.
This product is easy to clean and is made of well-ventilated fabric. It is safe for the environment as well as CertiPUR approved. Easy shipping allows this product to be transported in a box. The memory foam mattress will expand to its natural shape within 48 hours.
- It has two comfortable layers which allow the body to remain in a preferred position The fabric is well-ventilated and easy to clean CertiPUR certifies based on durability, content, and performance Environmentally friendly You have the option to choose different styles and sizes that fit your bed frame
- Does not have any bacteria or odor prevention qualities It is not spill-proof; able to ruin mattress with liquid They do not offer a sleep trial; the warranty should be read to avoid voiding it by removing the tag or using the wrong type of support system.
11. Live and Sleep (Best memory foam mattress for hot sleepers)
The Classic Live and Sleep mattress is very affordable. With positive reviews over 90%, in addition to its many features, this memory foam mattress is a must-buy. The company offers a warranty of twenty years, a trial period of thirty nights, and a free memory foam pillow. They offer all the standard and an RV Queen which is hard to find. This is also an attractive option for anyone on a budget.
Live and sleep is designed to be as comfortable as possible. It is ideal for people that like to change positions while sleeping, and it helps to avoid tossing and turning out of discomfort. The soft fabric is made of flex thread textile and is easy to remove and put it in the washing machine.
All Live and Sleep mattresses are hypoallergenic , mite resistant, and antimicrobial.
All the foam used in the mattress areCertiPUR-US® andOEKO-TEX® Certified
This memory foam product is designed to be breathable, which keeps it fresh in the summertime. The 2.5-inch layer of prime airflow infused pure visco, along with the extra thick layer of the advanced high-density support base, contours to the body.
- Antibacterial and hypoallergenic makes it a great choice for people with allergies. The new modern technology layers provide comfort and contour to your body. A free memory foam pillow helps to align your head for maximum comfort. The cooling factor allows the body to be temperature to be controlled, even during the summertime. The cover can be washed in a washing machine.
- The foam inside the bed is not waterproof The foam is a little firm in the beginning The 30-day sleep trial is a little short.
12. Best Price Mattress
This best price mattress company is known to provide its customers the best products at competitive prices. This product does not skimp on quality because of the low cost. It is CertiPUR approved, and is offered in different sizes to fit a number of bed frames with ease. The ten-year warranty on this product also contributes to customer satisfaction.
They are available on the market, and contrary to popular belief, they offer the best quality at the right price. This bed is made for people who like a contoured feeling without standard pressure points to make it uncomfortable.
The memory foam combined with a super-soft, high-density foam allows it to mold to the shape of the sleeper, so that uninterrupted rest can be had. This product comes in several different sizes, fitting a number of different bed frames.
The mattress is CertiPUR certified, which guarantees the product’s durability, performance, and content. For further customer satisfaction, a 10-year warranty is given with each purchase. For odor and moisture control, this mattress contains active charcoal.
This memory foam mattress is designed to be breathable, which keeps it fresh in the summertime. The 2.5-inch layer of prime airflow infused pure visco, along with the extra thick layer of the advanced high-density support base, contours to the body.
- Active charcoal in the memory foam mattress helps in controlling odors and moisture It contours to the shape of the body, and creates pressure points according to the sleeper, further improving comfort level. The product is approved by CertiPUR Cheap price, very affordable
- The foam is only six inches thick and has a weight limit of 250 pounds Foam cleaning is difficult and can be a nuisance
13. Zinus Green Tea – Best Memory Foam Mattrss For for Low Budget User
The Zinus mattress comes in several different sizes, and is available in multiple thicknesses for versatility. It is shipped smartly for safety purposes, and has many unique features to woo mattress customers. Memory foam makes it perfect to sleep on, without losing the natural shape of your spine. The company provides a warranty for assurance of customer satisfaction.
This memory foam mattress has highly attractive features, making it one of the best choices on the market. It has pressure relieving support, allowing for a better and more restful night’s sleep.
The mattress is infused with green tea extracts, along with castor seeds extract, which helps in killing bacteria and odor in the mattress. And it has been certified by CertiPUR, the US certification for durability, content, and better performance.
This mattress includes three layer; three inches of memory foam, two inches of comfort foam, three and a half inches of airflow high-density foam, fabric, and core construction foam to make one exceptional mattress. This memory foam mattress is available in different sizes and depths for versatility and enjoyment.
- Green tea and castor seed oil extract to remove odor and bacteria 12 inches high, 2 inches than the industry standard CertiPUR approved Available in many different sizes and depths Highly rated by many customers Affordable price
- Foam is not eco-friendly Not spill-proof or easy to clean.
14. Zinus Sleep Master – for combination sleepers
Zinus’s Ultima Comfort Memory Foam provides greater support than their other memory foam mattress with AirFlow to help you sleep cool. In this mattress, they provide greater support so heavy sleepers can sleep comfortably. Even a 175 lb man can sleep comfortably on the 8″ and much heavier sleepers will be well-supported on the 12″ version. This version also has the BioFoam to help keep the memory foam mattress fresh.
The Zinus Ultima Comfort uses a proprietary version of memory foam they call BioFoam because it is infused with plant oils.
They also used a pressure-relieving comfort foam along with a memory and high-density base support foam, to prevent painful sleep-disrupting pressure points. CertiPUR-US certification gives consumers peace of mind when making a mattress purchase.
Zinus Ultima Comfort provides a comfortable memory foam mattress for combination sleepers who sleep on their side, stomach, or back or a combination of the three. The memory foam layer uses 3 lb density foam with an ILD rating of 7 – 9. The pressure relief layer has a 1.8 lb density with a 20 ILD rating.
- Bio Foam technology is used to keep it fresh and comfortable. Pressure-relieving comfort foam targets pressure points. CertiPUR-US certification ensures that you can trust your mattress not to have any toxic chemicals. Affordable choice.
- The cover is not removable because the underlying fire protection layer is fiber glass. It is notantibacterial,and it is difficult to clean.
15. Perfect Cloud
The Perfect Cloud Supreme helps you sleep as peacefully as if you were resting in the clouds.
The new air foam technology helps you sleep cool while enjoying all the benefits of memory foam. The company provides a trial period of thirty days and a warranty of 10 years. It is exclusively designed in the US.
The Perfect Cloud Supreme helps you sleep so comfortably at night that it genuinely resembles the comfort of a cloud. The new of air foam technology helps you sleep through the night. The firmness of the memory foam mattress is ideal, neither a hard nor a soft, it’s medium with a gentle cushy feel on the top.
This memory foam mattress has passed the “Goldilocks test”, which means it’s not too soft and not too firm, making it just right. The base layer of the mattress is responsible for correct support. The cover is removable, washable, and can be replaced.
CertiPUR-US certified so you know it doesn’t contain harsh chemicals and that manufacturing didn’t add to ozone depletion. It is also hypoallergenic and dust mite preventative.
It’s ideal for heavyweights. If you are a lightweight person, then you feel like you’re sleeping on a rock solid surface. However, you don’t need to worry about it. Just add a soft topper, and that’s it, you can share it with your lightweight partner.
- Foam is Goldilocks approved Foam is CertiPUR-US certified The air comfort allows comfortable sleep This product is hypoallergenic, and the cover is removable
- The bed does not have unique features to remove odor Constructed by only 2 layers
Memory foam is primarily composed of polyurethane along with chemicals that help in increasing the density and viscosity. It’s often termed asPOLYURETHANE or VISCOELASTIC FOAM. It is also termed asLOW-RESILIENCE POLYURETHANE FOAM.
High-density memory foam mattresses soften in reaction to body heat that is released while sleeping. Softening allows the foam to mold around a warm body within few minutes. Not all mattresses return to their original shape at the same speed. Responsiveness refers to how quickly the mattress returns to its original shape after a sleeper moves. Newer memory foams usually recover quicker.
- The contouring effect of memory foam mattresses provides pain relief. It aids in reducing the back pain due to the natural resting position of the spinal cord. They offer you extra warmth some individuals prefer. According to sleep specialist, Donna L. Arand, PhD, lying down on the memory foam results in the production of heat which allows the foam to soften in certain areas. This heat aids in supporting the body along the natural lines and curves.
- They often lead to emission causing the respiratory irritation. The retaining heat property makes you feel uncomfortable during the warm weather. The polyurethane material in the memory foams is combustible. The manufacturers also caution the users of the memory foam that they should avoid leaving the children or small babies unattended because it might be difficult for them to turn over. The hazardous air pollutants are emitted from the memory foams which in short-term period lead to the irritation of throat and nose while chronic exposure leads to dizziness, memory loss, headache, and nausea.
Memory Foam Vs. Latex Vs. Innerspring
- Memory foam provides excellent pressure relief whereas latex offers very good pressure relief.
- The temperature comfort level can be weak on a memory foam mattress whereas the latex offers very good control of temperature. The temperature varies between different mattress designs.
- Memory foam doesn’t have much bounce whereas the latex provides you with excellent bounce.
- Memory foam eliminates most motion transfer, whereas it’s just good in the latex mattress.
- Back support of the memory foam mattress is superior to the support provided by innerspring mattresses.
- Memory foam mattresses are not susceptible to mildew, molds or dust mites.
- The density of the memory foams allows your bed to last for a twice longer period when compared to the innerspring mattress. It does not result in squeaking, creaking, sagging or development of bodily impressions.
- Natural and synthetic latex is available.
- The performance consistency with the memory foams is weak, however, it’s excellent with the latex.
- The latex provides excellent durability whereas the durability level of the memory foam is fair.
- The latex mattress aids in reducing the off-gassing and allows you to sleep cool.
- Natural latex is more expensive when compared to the innerspring mattress and memory foam, however, the memory foams do last for a longer period.
- The innerspring has a durable steel coil type of support mechanism.
- The innerspring was patented in 1871. They were the main type of mattresses for decades.
- Innerspring mattresses provide firmness along with fluffiness when a pillow top is used.
- Sleeping over the metal can create pressure points that increase tossing and turning, even when the mattress is well padded.
- The innerspring can squeak, sag, and creak.
- The innerspring lose their level of comfort with time. The innerspring mattresses are available in different designs with different coil systems which is extremely confusing.
- The innerspring is ideal for people who are overweight because it allows them to sleep firmly, making it easier for them to get in and out of the bed and roll over.
How to Choose the Right Density for Your Memory Foam Mattress?
Every person is different in terms of his preference regarding the density of the mattress they choose. There are various types available in the market with different densities and different technologies such as temperature control features, ease of movement, and durability.
So, what does density mean in terms of memory foam mattresses?
For example, if you bought a memory foam mattress which has a density of around 5 pounds for each cubic foot, it weighs around 5 pounds per cubic foot. Low, medium, and high-density mattresses are available:
In general, the price reflects the longevity of the mattress. More expensive doesn’t always mean better. If your top priority is sleeping cool, the highest density memory foam with the least airflow would not be your best choice unless the manufacturer has a special cooling design.
All the memory foam mattress in the market usually react to the body temperature. When the memory foam mattress gets warm, it becomes softer and molds to the natural contours of the body. It is for this reason that some brands do not adjust immediately because they do not warm up the second you lie down on the mattress.
The low-density mattress feels softer. These mattresses are less expensive because less material is used in them.
Medium-density foam 4-5 lbs.
The medium density mattress are the most popular ones because they offer a perfect ratio of soft and firm. The medium density mattress is also famous because the price range suits the budget of many individuals. The stiffness level provided by medium density is a bit less than the high-density one.
If you do not suffer from any form of muscle stiffness or joint pain then you can probably choose the medium density memory model for your mattress. A good compromise for your budget is a memory foam mattress with high density on the bottom layer and an upper layer of low density because you won’t sink in too far but the top layer is softer.
High-density foam 6+ lbs.
The high-density memory foam mattress is expensive because it uses more material to manufacture. Expect to pay thousands of dollars for a high-density mattress. The high-density or orthopedic mattresses usually have a density of 6 pounds to relieve aches and pains. The high-density memory foam mattress is the best option if you have medical conditions that it will ease.
High-density memory foam mattresses are stiff, but they do warm-up and mold to your body shape. High-density memory foams are designed to provide ultimate support for pressure points like your hips and shoulders. The durability of high-density memory foam is very high.
More FAQs About Memory Foam Mattress
Why Is Memory Foam So Expensive?
“Expensive memory foam” is not something you should be afraid off because it means more quality and durability. One way to consider the price of a mattress is the price divided by its expected useful life. That gives you the annual cost of the mattress. Of course, if you’re just out of college with high student loan debt and a tight budget, a less expensive mattress would be better for now but plan to replace it. Sleeping on a mattress that is past its useful life can hurt your back and it can make you wake up with aches and pains you wouldn’t have if you slept on a better mattress.
If your budget allows, the high-density is a great choice. If you’re middle age or older, the health benefits can make life much more enjoyable. The expensive memory foams have different advantages when compared to the low quality and cheap models.
The cheaper ones are generally softer than the expensive ones because they are less dense and they compress easily.
The expensive memory mattress last longer (expect around 20 years), whereas the least expensive ones are only good for about 5 years. All the expensive memory mattress have gel which allows you to sleep cool at night.
With a high-density mattress, it takes more time to sink into the mattress. The expensive memory foam mattresses are made in the US due where the quality is highly controlled and labor is expensive.
The brands selling the memory mattresses are certified by Certi-Pur-US. They are non-toxic, produce less off-gassing, and are environment-friendly.
Now that you know the difference between the cheaper and the expensive memory foams, you can easily buy the memory mattress that suits your budget and your preferences.
How to Keep Cool on a Memory Foam Mattress?
- Add Gel To It
Adding a liquid gel to the memory foam aids in retaining the benefits provided by the mattress such as pressure distribution and posture support while helping to keep the mattress cool while you sleep.
- Air Flow Design
The consumer can’t change or replace the airflow design of the memory mattress because the structure is completely solid. Manufacturers work hard to design mattresses that allow air flow.
The consumer can help by ensuring that the space underneath the mattress allows air to move freely. Trapped air can lead to an accumulation of heat. The best surface for memory foam mattresses allows the air underneath to move freely. Wood slats and some adjustable beds do a great job allowing air flow underneath the bed.
- Use A Cool Topper
Choose a cool topper made from your choice of down alternative, gel foam, or natural cotton. The topper adds a perfect layer of space which allows the air to move freely and helps you sleep cool.
How Long Does A Memory Foam Mattress Last?
The important consideration when buying a memory foam mattress is the lifespan of the product. These mattresses can for a longer time than other mattresses. However, you’ll make a better decision if you consider several factors including the quality of the product, the density, and ease of care.
The density, as well as the core of the mattress, predict the longevity of the mattresses. The denser types offer you with a perfect feel and provide you with the best performance. The denser the mattress the longer it will last.
So the higher density lasts for a longer period when compared to the low-density mattress. Most people, however, usually prefer to sleep over the medium density mattress. These models last for a longer period i.e. around 8-10 years. The lifespan of low-density mattresses can be as short as 4-6 years.
The second most important aspect regarding the longevity of the mattress is the density of the support base (core foam) used in the mattress. The core or support foam is usually the foam at the bottom of the mattress. If the mattress is reversible, the core level may be in the middle of the mattress.
First, the density of the core foam is not comparable to the density of memory foam. It will be easy to become confused if you don’t understand that the memory foam layers and the core foam layer are made from different types of foam. Memory foam is designed to compress and return to its original shape. Core foams are usually made from polyfoam which is not memory foam.
A low-quality support base reduces the longevity of the mattress. Classification of core foam can be confusing because the terms relating to them have not been well-defined. “High Resilience” (HR) refers to a type of polyfoam that is considered higher quality than polyfoam that cannot be called “High Resilience.” You may see polyfoam referred to as “highly resilient.” Be aware that “highly resilient” refers to the bounce and does not refer to the support the foam provides. We provide more clarification in this article,Clarifying Confusing Mattress Terms.
High-resilience memory foams are considered ideal with a core density beginning at 2.5 pounds. Low-density cores rated at less than 2.0 pounds can quickly break down, compress and get softer with time resulting in compromised longevity and support.
Although it is fair to say that lower density foams will break down faster than higher density foams, we don’t have published information that tells us that a mattress with twice the density will last twice as long. We only know that one will last longer but not whether that relationship is linear or compounded by other factors.
Simmons Mattress Review: A Comprehensive Guide
The Simmons Bedding Company is one of the leading brands in the mattress industry. They make a variety of high-quality beds that are commonly found in most mattress retailers. In general, the best mattress is one that supports you and reduce aches, pains, and pressure points. When you’re browsing mattress retailers, you’ll probably be faced with a sea of mattresses that claim to do just that. To make your search less overwhelming, we’ve written this guide about the Beautyrest line and Beautyrest mattress reviews to help you decide if this mattress brand has the best bed for you.
Searching for a New mattress?
The Simmons Bedding Company
Simmons is an early mattress company, and it follows an older production and marketing system. That means the company develops a brand name, such as Beautyrest, and they then develop dozens of products under that name.
If you walk into a store and inquire about a Beautyrest mattress, you can choose from a variety of mattress types with different depths, construction types, and consistencies. By offering such a range, Simmons makes it easier for you to find the best mattress for you.
Within the Beautyrest flagship, there are five mattress collections: Black, Platinum, Hybrid, Silver, and Beautyrest. The names of the mattresses within these collections are subject to change from retailer to retailer, as most retailers have their own specific names for each of these beds.
In these next sections, we’ll be discussing each collection in detail, covering the mattresses in each group and the materials used to make them. Afterward, we’ll run through the sleep trial and warranty information for these mattresses.
Skip to the part you’re most interested in:
The Beautyrest Black® collection features three different innerspring mattress types, each of these containing a unique pocketed coil system specific to Beautyrest; the T3 Pocketed Coil® Technology. The coils in their proprietary T3 Pocketed Coil® technology are made from three steel strands. Ultimately, this technology aims to reduce motion transfer and increase the durability of these beds.
The Black® mattresses overall are designed to provide luxury pressure relief and support, exceptional temperature control, and be very durable. In these mattresses, they use a higher quality memory foam than what’s in their other beds, and they use many materials specifically designed to keep you cool. If you’re someone who frequently experiences pressure points, aches, or pains after waking, one of the mattresses featured in this collection would be a good fit for you.
On their website, they have generic names for these three mattress types, so they’re likely to change from retailer to retailer, as we mentioned before. These three mattress types are theK-Class™, theC-Class™, and theL-Class™.
There is not a substantial difference between these types. As you move from K-Class™ to C-Class™, you lose a layer of nano coils. As you move from the C-Class™ to the L-Class™, you lose a layer of temperature-regulating memory foam. It’s very similar to buying a car; when you go with the most luxurious package, you get all of the fun bells and whistles. As you drop tier by tier, you lose bells and whistles. That said, all three of these mattresses are considered to be high-quality, and though some may lack in bells and whistles, they still aim to provide an all-around comfortable sleeping experience.
Each of these mattress types comes in a variety of firmness levels, from Ultra Plush to Luxury Firm. Meaning, there is an option for you regardless of which sleeping position you favor.
Below, we’ll break down the materials included in each of layers of these beds:
The Beautyrest website does not provide much information regarding the materials used in this mattress. Instead of disclosing specific materials, they use and talk about a lot of their own proprietary materials such as RightTemp™ memory foam, GelTouch® foam, and BlackIce™ technology.
These mattresses come in most standard sizes including TwinXL, Full, Queen, King and, California King. The prices vary by class. For this guide, we’ll be basing all of our prices off ofQueen sizes.
- K-Class™mattresses run between $3,899 to $3,299.
- The C-Class™mattresses range in price from $2,699 to $2,899.
- L-Class™mattresses range in price from $2,399 to $1,799.
The Beautyrest Black® collection is not the most budget-friendly, with their cheapest mattress coming in at $1,799. Though with a hefty price tag comes advanced technology and durable support. These mattresses may be expensive, but they may be worth it in the long run, as customers mention in reviews owning their bed for over 20 years.
On top of featuring the core three mattresses, this collection also features two other mattress types sold exclusively at Mattress Firm: theBlack® Memory Foamand theBlack® Hybrid. Unlike the other mattresses in the Black® collection, the Memory Foam and Hybrid model both lack the T3 Pocketed Coil® Technology. The Memory Foam mattress is an all-foam mattress while the Hybrid mattress contains Advanced Pocketed Coil™ Technology, instead. The Beautyrest website does not mention the other materials used in these mattresses, but as they’re apart of the Black® collection, it’s implied they’re made from a few of the same materials we listed above.
Both the Black® Memory Foam and Hybrid mattress are available in a range of firmness levels, so you’re likely to find one that feels comfortable to you.
The Beautyrest Platinum collection also features three different mattresses:Haven Pines™,Spring Grove™, andJaycrest™.
The mattresses featured in their Platinum collection are specifically designed to promote a temperature neutral sleeping environment and offer great support to the sleeper. If you’re somebody who’s prone to sleeping hot, these mattresses would be great for you.
The Haven Pines™ and Spring Grove™ mattresses range from Plush to Luxury Firm while the Jaycrest™ is only available in a Plush firmness. Meaning, Haven Pines™ and Spring Grove™ mattresses have firmness options available for most any type of sleeper. Soft beds, though, are typically better for side sleepers. To find the best mattress for side sleepers, read our other guide.
Similar to the Black® collection, these mattresses operate on a “Good, Better, Best” model— the Jaycrest™ is the Good mattress, the Spring Grove™ is better, but the Haven Pines™ is the best. Haven Pines™ has the most bells and whistles while Jaycrest™ has the least. Below, we’ll discuss the materials in each.
|Models||Haven Pines™||Spring Grove™||Jaycrest™|
Depending on the retailer you visit, these mattresses should be available in most standard sizes. The prices will vary by model. As we mentioned before, these prices are based on Queen sizes:
- Haven Pines™mattresses range in price from $1,899 to $1,599.
- Spring Grove™mattresses only range from $1,399 to $1,299.
- TheJaycrest™is $1,199 for a Queen.
These mattresses are a tad cheaper than the mattresses in the Black® collection but are still a bit pricey in comparison to mattresses you can buy online and other mattress brands. If you’re looking for a high-quality, cheaper mattress, read our guide to find the best online mattress.
Though the mattresses in the other collections, such as Black® and Platinum, contain memory foam, they’re a mostly innerspring mattress. By introducing the Hybrid mattresses, Beautyrest offers a bed with an even mix of coil support and memory foam comfort.
The selling point of these mattresses is the inclusion of ContourFit™ foam; this foam contours and cradles your body regardless of the sleeping position you’re in, which makes it a good fit for just about any sleeper.
The Beautyrest Hybrid line includes three mattress collections:BRX3000-IM™, BRX1000-IP™, andBRX1000-C™. Additionally, they sell theirHybrid Mattress-in-a-Boxas a part of this collection.
The BRX3000-IM™and BRX1000-IP™ collections offer a variety of firmnesses with their mattresses, with options ranging from Ultra Plush to Extra Firm. The Hybrid Mattress-in-a-Box is only available in Medium, and the BRX1000-C™ is only available in Plush.
As you can probably guess, the prices of these models change as you go down the line, with the BRX3000-IM™ models being more expensive than the BRX1000-C™ mattresses.
- TheBRX3000-IM™collection ranges in price from $2,299 to $1,799.
- BRX1000-IP™mattresses range in price from $1,599 to $1,299.
- TheBRX1000-C™is $999.
- TheHybrid Mattress-in-a-Boxis $699.
The mattresses in the Hybrid collection range widely in price, with the most expensive mattress being over $2,000 and the least expensive being around $700. Regardless of your price restrictions, you’re likely to find a bed that works for your budget.
Below, we’ll break down the materials in each of these mattresses.
The other mattresses Beautyrest sells are considered to be innerspring mattresses because their design is mostly centered around the coil system of the bed, with foam layers added for comfort. The design of the mattresses in the Hybrid collection have a more even ratio of foam to coils, giving it a balance of comfort and bouncy support. If you aren’t a fan of the bouncy feeling of innerspring beds, or you are looking for a bed with exceptional motion isolation, a mattress from their Hybrid collection should meet your sleep needs.
The Beautyrest Silver line focuses on durability and longevity of the bed, designing these mattresses to be long-lasting. As the name suggests, they use silver in these mattresses. Silver naturally helps dissipate heat and inhibits the growth of bacteria, mold, and mildew; by using silver in these mattresses you considerably reduce the risk of germs accumulating.
The Silver mattresses are innerspring mattresses, as well, so they have foam components in conjunction with a coil system. In this collection, there are two mattress types:BRS-900Cand theBRS-900.
The BRS-900C mattress would be considered the luxury model because it’s made with more high-quality foam and heat reducing technologies than the BRS-900. Below, we’ll break down the layers.
Both the BRS-900C and BRS-900 mattresses come in a range of firmnesses, from Plush to Extra Firm, giving you a scope of options.
The price of these mattresses is less than the other two collections of innerspring mattresses:
- A QueenBRS-900Cranges from $1,199 to $1,099.
- TheBRS-900mattresses range in price from $899 to $999.
Beautyrest Silver mattresses are great for children because of their ability to reduce germs and bacteria in the bed. Furthermore, they’re a great option if you’re buying a bed with hopes of it lasting a long time. If you value durability and are looking for a mattress designed to last you for years to come, a mattress within their Silver collection is probably the best one for you.
The Beautyrest Mattress
The last mattress on our list is The Beautyrest Mattress. Known as theBR800, this mattress is available in Plush Pillow Top, Medium Pillow Top, Plush Euro Top, Medium, and Firm. Because they sell these mattresses in a variety of firmnesses, they have an option for every type of sleep style.
The Beautyrest mattress collection is very budget-friendly, with mattresses ranging in price from $499 to $799. If your budget restricts you, one of these mattresses should be an excellent option for the money.
The design of these mattresses is not particularly complicated, and these mattresses do not contain too much extra technology included in their other collections. Below, we’ll break down the layers:
If you’re looking for an inexpensive mattress that provides you with the essentials in regards to comfort and support, the Beautyrest BR800 is probably a good fit for you. Specifically, college students and growing children would fair well on these mattresses.
Simmons Bedding Company does not sell its Beautyrest Collection to consumers directly, which means it does not offer a sleep trial directly through their company. Instead, if a sleep trial is offered, it would be through the mattress retailer. Before buying, be sure to ask if the mattress comes with a sleep trial and how long the sleep trial is.
Beautyrest is commonly available at Mattress Firm, with their two Black® mattresses being exclusively sold at Mattress Firm. After looking on their website, we found that Mattress Firm offers its customers a 120-night sleep trial with any new mattress.
During this sleep trial, you have the opportunity to try the mattress in your own home to decide if it’s the best bed for you. They do require you to try their mattress for at least 30 nights, but if you find afterward the bed isn’t the best for your own sleep needs, you have the option to return it as long as the mattress is free from stains or damage.
Though they may offer a “free” sleep trial, their return process is not free. If you decide against keeping your new bed, you’ll have to pay $79.99 ($99.00 in some markets) to return your mattress and then 10% of your original total to have them restock the product. Which means a return could cost you a couple of hundred dollars. We would not recommend buying a mattress with the intention of trying and possibly returning. Before you buy, you should feel confident what you’re buying is the best mattress for yourself.
Similar to the sleep trial, the warranty that comes with your Beautyrest mattress will vary from retailer to retailer.
On their website, it appears as if they have over 15 different warranty policies. We’re unsure if you’re able to choose which plan you’d like, or if each retailer offers a policy of its own. Below, we created a table summarizing their core 14 warranties.
|Warranty Code||Total Limited Warranty||Period for No Charge (Except Transportation)||Normal Body Impression|
|A||10 Years||10 Years||1.5" or less|
|B||1 Year||1 Year||1.5" or less|
|E||20 Years||10 Years||.75" or less|
|G||2 Years||2 Years||Removable Fabric Cover|
|H||5 Years||5 Years||1.5" or less|
|I||20 Years||10 Years||1.5" or less|
|J||3 Years||3 Years||1.5" or less|
|K||10 Years||3 Years||1.5" or less|
|L||25 Years||10 Years||.75" or less|
|M||15 Years||10 Years||1.5" or less|
|N||25 Years||15 Years||1.5" or less|
|O||25 Years||15 Years||.75" or less|
|P||10 Years||10 Years||.75" or less|
Before you buy, be sure to ask about the warranty information— specifically how long it lasts, what defects it covers, and what costs you’re responsible for in the event of a warranty claim.
Overview of Our Beautyrest Mattress Review
The Simmons Bedding Company has been a part of the mattress industry since 1870, staying relevant by consistently designing and selling high-quality mattresses across the nation. If you’re looking for a new bed, Simmons Beautyrest makes a variety of options.
When reading reviews about the Beautyrest brand, we noticed two trends. The pros of buying a Beautyrest included affordable price and exceptional motion isolation. The negative reviews centered around the durability of the bed and the experience customers had with the Simmons Bedding Company. Though the bed is initially comfortable, many reviews mention the Beautyrest mattress sags or shows signs of wear and tear after only a year or so. They also state Simmons commonly finds loopholes out of fulfilling their end of the warranty agreement.
When buying with any brand, some pros and cons come with your purchase. Customer reviews are a great way to read about the good and bad experiences customers have had either with a company or while using a particular product. Before you buy your next bed, we encourage you to read mattress reviews and reviews about the retailer you’re buying from, too.
Quiz: Can You Guess the Origins of These Words?: HowStuffWorks
By: Elisabeth Henderson
About This Quiz
Language is not controlled by dictionaries and grammarians, though students of language are often made to feel that way. Instead, dictionaries and grammarians track the logic that holds a language together and the many meanings that words accrue as they pass through time. In other words, the speakers of a language create the language. The study of the origins of words, known as etymology, attempts to follow how words come into being and how the friction of historical events shapes their meaning.
For instance, Old English, the oldest ancestor to our Modern English, came into being when Germanic tribes migrated to Britain in around 5 A.D. The clashing of cultures created a need for unique language. Another clash, the Norman conquest in 1066, drastically shaped the language to such a great extent that it ushered in the next era of English, Middle English. With the Norman invasion, Latin and French influences entered the spoken and written language. The Renaissance fascination with ancient languages, like Greek and Latin, marked the beginning of the shift to Modern English.
The words we use are still changing, of course, with hundreds being added to the dictionary each year and sanctioned as accepted English. In 2019, Miriam Webster added “screen time” and “unplug,” among 638 others. As these words show, the changing language reflects the dramatically shifting cultural landscape. Take this quiz and test your knowledge of the shifting sands that formed these words!
Which ancient war tradition earned the name “berserk”?
The act of going “berserk,” where a person runs around in a frenzy wrecking their surroundings, hails back to the ancient Norse warriors who were said to dress like a bear, “bjorn,” with a “serkr,” coat. These warriors channeled the power of the bear to attack the enemy ferociously.
How did the word “jumbo” come to mean something unusually large?
In 1882, the word “jumbo” began to be used generally to refer to something unusually large. The reference pointed back to the London Zoo’s enormous elephant, Jumbo. Scholars speculate that this name may have originated from a West African dialect where “jumbo” meant elephant.
If you’ve been placed on “quarantine,” where can you trace the origins of your predicament to?
The Black Plague, or the Black Death, wiped out nearly 25 million people, almost a third of the European continent’s population. To try to stop the spread of disease, passengers aboard ships in Italian ports would be detained for 40, or quaranta, days before being allowed on the shore.
If you “hazard” a guess, which language family are you tapping into?
The word “hazard” comes to English through the Arabic language family, via the Spanish word “azar,” for an “unfortunate card or throw at dice.” The Arabic influence on the Spanish word reveals the profound mixing of Spanish and Arabic culture in the Middle Ages. That we now use the word for taking a chance shows the use of metaphor in language building.
When you are wondering in a “haze,” what language meaning is connected to your situation?
The word "haze" does not date back much earlier than the 18th century in England, where the word originally referred to a state of confusion and vagueness. It was then used to refer to an opaque environment. Tellingly, the English language is the only language to have three words — haze, mist, and fog — that differentiate levels of opacity.
What origin does the word “disaster” point to?
The word “disaster,” which we now generally apply to stressful, unfortunate events, originates from the Italian word “disastro,” which literally meant “ill star.” The word came from the Greek understanding that a bad alignment of stars and planets contributed to catastrophic events.
If someone is “fluent” in a language, what meaning does this attribution tap into?
A speaker who is “fluent” in a language shares the original meaning of “flowing freely, like a river,” which the original Latin word contained. This sense of “fluid” and “river” adds texture and imagery to the concept of fluency — that language speakers can adapt and flow without effort in communication.
Which mythical story does the word “clue” owe its modern meaning to?
“Clue” used to mean “a ball of yarn.” The sense of the word shifted to mean anything giving an indication or direction in a complex situation, thanks to the myth of Theseus and the Minotaur. In the myth, Ariadne gives Theseus a ball of yarn when he is sent into the labyrinth where the Minotaur dwells. He unwinds the yarn as he goes and is able to follow the clue to get out.
What is the original meaning of “woman”?
In Old English, the word “woman” originally came from a compound of “wif,” woman, and “man,” human being. Oddly, the language joined together a word which already meant a female human to the masculine word for a human being.
In which language does the name “mermaid” have its roots?
The word “mermaid” has ancestors in Old English, in “merewif,” which meant water-witch. In Middle English, mermaid took on “maid,” which meant single woman. Early legends of mermaids have negative connotations, where the mermaids usually end up harming those they encounter.
When someone is “buried,” what other meanings go in the ground with them?
The Old English word that eventually became “bury” was “byrgan,” “to enclose in a grave or tomb.” This word was related to the Proto-Germanic word, “beorgan,” “to shelter or protect.” The ancient word contains the meaning of sheltering the dead from the elements.
What meaning does the modern use of the word “amateur” derive from?
“Amateur,” a word that signals someone who is interested in an art form but is not a practitioner, comes from the Latin “amator” for “lover or friend.” Interestingly, the word, which originally showed love for something, now connotes a lack of expertise.
Which of the following meanings is related to the origins of the word “heresy”?
“Heresy” generally describes a view that departs from the accepted norms, usually of religious doctrines. The word came from the Greek word “haireses,” which meant choosing for yourself. Taking your own choice and departing from the norms is later seen as problematic in dogmatic settings.
If someone told you were a “nice” person in the 13th century, what would they be saying about you?
The word “nice” has morphed dramatically since the Middle Ages. In modern English, the word most nearly means “kind,” but in the 13th century, it carried the meaning of “foolish and ignorant.” The term became more ambiguous before making a shift toward the positive.
Which elements make up the word “innocent”?
“Innocent,” which usually means the state of being without guilt, is composed of the prefix in — not and the root nocent, from nocentum — harm. So, the original word has more to do with a state of not having done harm rather than being guilt-free in any legal sense.
If an Old English speaker said they were “giddy” about pumpkin spice season, how would people generally understand them?
While today the word “giddy” connotes happiness to the point of being disoriented, it originally focused heavily on the disorientation, meaning “insane, mad, or stupid.” It could even be related to the state of being possessed. Since the 16th century, though, the meaning of happy elation has attached to the word.
What connotation did the word “hope” originally contain?
Even in Old English, the word “hope” has been filled with theological connotation, meaning a sense of confidence in the path of salvation. Only much later, around the 13th century, did the broader application of hope as a “wish” for something come into use.
Which object is associated with the origin of the word “ostracize”?
In Ancient Greece, the population used to vote on whether a person should be banished from the community by casting a vote on a piece of broken pottery called an “ostrakon.” If the community agreed that the person should be cast out, the person was then “ostracized.”
These days we look for “loopholes” as ways to get out of the full extent of the law. What were they originally used for?
“Loopholes” now provide ways to avoid paying full taxes, but, back in the 13th century, they gave protection to archers who could shoot through the small hole in the fortress, leaving little opportunity for the enemy to shoot back.
Which aspect of the “weather” is the original word most closely connected to?
The word “weather” has, from its Old English roots, described the “air, sky, breeze, or storm,” but its Proto-Germanic root, “wedra,” refers to “wind.” This makes sense, as the wind does bring in the changes in weather that humans experience.
Which early sense adhered to the earliest root of the word “holy”?
Since Christianity has had an influence on the language, even in Old English, the word “holy” has meant “sacred or consecrated, set apart.” Before Christianity left this imprint on the language, though, the term had more to do with “health” or wholeness, something which should be left intact.
What original meaning did the word “common” have?
“Common,” which now can mean either something plain or something belonging to all or a group, comes from the Latin roots ko-moin-ni, meaning "held together." The sense of “plain” came in the 14th century and seems connected to the idea of just being one among many.
Which of the following meanings adhered to “war” in its original use?
The Old English “wyrre” had the same meaning of “large-scale military conflict” that we associate with war today. Its Germanic ancestor, though, “verran,” meant “to confuse or perplex,” defining war by its effects rather than its actions.
What does the root word for “lunatic” show about early beliefs in the origins of insanity?
The modern word, “lunatic,” which refers to an insane person, derives from the Latin “lunaticus,” meaning “moon-struck.” This word had connotations of insanity from its earliest origins and shows the early belief in an association between madness and moon phases. This connection also exists in Germanic and Greek languages.
Which of these meanings predates the modern meaning of the word “quick”?
In Old English, if you were “cwic,” it wasn’t really a compliment, just a statement that your heart was beating. The modern meaning, though, has been associated with the word since the 12th century, when it took on the meaning of rapid, from the connection with being full of life.
Which meal did the word “dinner” originally refer to?
The word dinner, which some English speakers use to describe the final meal of the day, and others use for the mid-day meal, is related to the Latin “disjejeunare,” to break a fast, or breakfast. By the 13th century, it was used to describe the main meal of the day.
Who did the derogatory name “Dunce” first apply to?
The derogatory appellation “dunce” has been used since the Renaissance to put down a person’s ability to think clearly. Originally, though, the meaning had a very specific target — followers of the philosopher Duns Scotus, whose ideas had fallen out of popularity.
If you were in the favor of the king in the Middle Ages, what was the likely cause?
“Favor,” a root of the word favorite, came to mean approval or praise by the 15th century. In the 13th century, though, the earlier use of the word referred to beauty or attraction. This draws a clear connection with the sources of praise and approval.
Which language family does the word “horse” originate from?
“Horse” remains essentially unchanged from the Old English, the Germanic word “hors.” Some scholars believe the word to come from the Proto-Indo-European root, “kers,” for "run," but this is not a certainty.
Which emotional reaction is at the root of the word “horror”?
Surprisingly, though the modern inflection of “horror” has to do with intense fear, the earliest meaning, in the 14th century, describes a feeling of “disgust.” From that feeling of shrinking back, the word morphed to mean the experience of dread. The fear elicited by horror has disgust at its root.
If a person had a sense of “elation” in the earliest sense of the word, how would they be perceived?
The world “elation,” which is commonly used to describe an experience of high spirits, originally referred to someone with a heightened sense of themself. The sense of arrogance shifted in the 18th century to mean lifted spirits.
What action is the verb “hallucinate” related to in its original sense?
The verb “hallucinate,” which now means to experience something in the senses that is not actually there, derives from the Latin word, “alucinare,” to wander about in the mind, or to dream. It’s the original trip, in other words.
Which unlikely object was referred to by the plural of “ineffable”?
The adjective “ineffable” describes that which cannot be described. In the original Latin, it means “not utterable.” Somehow, in the early 19th century, the word “ineffables” came to be used to describe trousers.
Before “epoch” described a period of time, what did it mean?
“Epoch” has meant a “fixed point in time” since its Greek origins. That original word comes from the Proto-Indo-European word, epi — on and ekhein — hold, or something held in place. The meaning of a period of time came about in the 17th century.
In the earliest use of the word, if you hit your “curfew,” what would you have to do?
In the 14th century, the word “curfeu” referred to a signal that told everyone to put out their lights and fires. It literally meant “cover fire.” Lights out! The modern use of the word as a name for putting limits on where someone can be at certain hours dates back to the 19th century.